Weapons are rated for damage and accuracy over range as well as the velocity of the "bullet". In SotS, different weapons behave differently. Between rates of fire, accuracy and range there may be many reasons why smaller weapons may do exactly what you want while a larger weapon may not. So bigger or newer may not always be better for a particular purpose.
Weapon Accuracy is determined by both the weapon mount and the weapon itself. The speed at which weapons track and their ability to target is a function of the turret that is placed on the weapon mount, not the weapons that are installed in the turret. A small turret can track faster than a medium turret, even if both turrets hold the same weapon. In addition, each weapon is rated for a degree of deviation in terms of accuracy. When you click on a target, the gun fires at that point plus or minus its accuracy deviation, creating a cone of possible trajectories. Fire control technologies tighten up that cone significantly. That still doesn't guarantee a hit, but it does guarantee a much tighter distribution of shots.
Weapons vs Ships
Some weapons have secondary effects, such as the anti–crowd charged plasma weapon called an Emitter which has the charming ability of striking one target then jumping to another. Another example are Disruptors, which are low damage but shut down the target's weapon banks for a limited time. Finally, the Electro-Magnetic Pulsar torpedo can shut down an entire ship caught in its blast, but only for a moment.
Weapons vs Planets
Each weapon is rated for damage vs the three colony targets of Population, Infrastructure and Environment. The only weapon systems devoted completely to planetary attack are assault shuttles, bio missiles and the Zuul Slave Disk. All other weapons can be directed against planets as well as ships, with differing effects depending on their rating against each of the three colony targets. Planet resources are immune to weapons fire mainly because otherwise it is too easy for scorched earth policies to render the entire game tedious.
This category has the following 12 subcategories, out of 12 total.